Review of Related Literature – School and Campus Bullying

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

             The review of related literature for this study focuses on examining the causes and effects of bullying in school, most especially in high schools. This will provide an in-depth analysis on existing researches about bullying – management and coping. This review aims to identify researches of the same topic from time to time with authors in different field. This will show how factors in the environment give rise to conflict in school and how student are affected. This will also discuss how management of schools in violence and intervention scheme are important for the students to experience a place conducive for learning.

Conceptual Framework

School Violence, Conflict and Harmony

School violence or conflict in school is the most common situation that all schools face. It cannot be avoided that is for the fact that (Lee, 1998), “conflict is natural. It occurs in the natural order of life and is part of the human condition.” It is also “… part of life in schools and in society in general.”

The term conflict has many meanings varying in different contexts and situations. It overlaps with other kinds of conflict we know. According to Thomas (1976), conflict is “the process which begins when one party perceives that the other has frustrated, or is about to frustrate, some concern of his.” Because of the perceived feeling towards someone with negative impact, conflict occurs.

Aside from the fact that conflict in school cannot be avoided, Ghaffar (2005) suggests that conflict is needed or occurred in purpose because it may:

  1. Help to raise and address problems;
  2. Energize work to be on the most appropriate issues;
  3. Help people “be real”, for example, it motivates them to

participate and;

4. Help people learn how to recognize and benefit from their


However, conflicts should not be recognized as the cause of itself. For Pulvino (1998), there are factors that influence students or children to create“stamina” as to why they are boost to do bad for their classmates or playmates.

  1. Economic Factors – students with no money tend to do something to have money. Because of hunger, he can do nothing of no good.
  2. Media – media has the big influence on what students do. Because of technology, different media such as televisions and computers are now more accessible to them. What they watch, read or hear have an effect to them.
  3. Breakdown in Family Values – poor supervision of parents toward their children has greatest effect. It is because family is the environment that they grow up to that nurtures them most.
  4. Conflict of educational approaches – schools affect the students also as they spend most of their time there rather than at home. And what the teacher teaches especially of good values may have an effect to student who has different perspective to it.
  5. Drugs and Alcohol – this can be the cause of unfavourable supervision of parents. Students do unfavourable things without the knowledge of their parents. They will think that these vices are their only companion at time of sadness, aside from their friends doing it with them.

Definition by Thomas may say that frustration towards another create conflict. This may also say that because of differences among students it will result to the same problem. (Lee, 1998) Among the differences why there is conflict are the following but not limited to:

  1. Gender differences – (Tannen, 1990) naturally occurring differences exist between males and females, particularly in regard to differences in communication styles.
  2. Ethnic differences – (Hall, 1981) cultural histories, contexts and teachings promote differences in values, attitudes and perceptions.
  3. Age differences – (Strauss & Howe, 1991) age differences among people stimulate different perspectives.
  4. Physical size differences – larger, stronger people have physical advantage not available to smaller, weaker people.
  5. Social economic class differences – (Batra, 1987) a natural tension exists among people with economic capability and those without.
  6. Status and role differences – personal power is related to social roles. Parents are expected to manage their children’s behavior.

Lee (1998) added that “differences like these are normal and naturally occurring. The source of conflicts usually resides within people and their expectations of how others should behave.”

It is therefore that conflicts are because of many reasons, both teachers and parents should address. It will not be put into order if students are very aggressive and very determine to do more than just a conflict but violence inside or outside the classroom.

Because conflicts happen in school, teachers and administrators are more responsible. They shall create harmony. Harmony is not just the absence of conflict or a peaceful situation or having a calm environment and atmosphere but it is (Crum, 1987) “the restoration of balance among opposing energies.”

Conflict will not only be among students. It can be teacher to students, employee to students or guards to students. And it is not only through physical violence but also verbal violence saying undesirable words which may affect the psychological behavior of the person receiving it.

Research Framework

School or campus violence is a major issue today. News for the past weeks and months reported problems of bullying, violence and even, death in schools in different levels. So, (De Guzman, 2009) “The national government, through the Department of Education (DepEd) and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), has called for an effective cooperation and coordination among schools and stakeholders to deal with the existing and emerging threats.”

Be it be public or private, the government has the responsibility in maintaining good atmosphere in schools because it is the lives of students that are at stake for they will be the future of the country.

Though the lawmakers are doing everything where they even created the Campus Security Act which has the provision “to provide a safe and healthy environment for students requiring educational institutions to disclose crime statistics that occur within campus and its security policies and procedures”, survey says, conducted by the Plan Philippines in 2009, that 5 out 10 students of Grades 1-3, 7 out of 10 from Grades 4-6 and 6 out of 10 from high schools, experienced campus violence and bullying.

Likewise, schools today, either public or private, shall be following the policies and law provided by the Education Act of 1982 or “An act providing for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of Education” The act mandated the campus security management where (De Guzman, 2009), “it is the school’s responsibility to maintain a safe and secure campus environment that is conducive for learning.”

Conflict Management, Resolution and Intervention

            Johnson and Johnson (1996) said that conflict resolution and meditation programs are often promoted as a way to reduce violence. They as well state that conflicts are resolved constructively when they: (a) result in an outcome that all involve are satisfied with; (b) improve the relationship between the involve persons and; (c) improve the ability of involve to resolve future conflicts in a

constructive manner. On the other hand, Bentley (1996) describes mediation as a form of problem solving process where a neutral third party assists disputants to reach a mutually acceptable agreement. It is because (Ghaffar, 2005) “meditation is another way of conflict management used today.”

Lee (1998) suggested three conflict management strategies namely; passive, assertive and facilitative. These three strategies are breakdown into classifications.

  1. Passive Strategy
    1. Doing Nothing – (Dobson & Miller, 1974) “doing nothing is a neutral conflict management option.” (Lee, 1998) “Sometimes, taking a wait-and-see attitude is best.”
    2. Withdrawing – (Lee, 1998) “In a life threatening situation, get the attention of others whatever means it takes.”
    3. Smoothing – (Hamilton et al, 1982) “The most important outcome is maintenance or enhancement of the existing interpersonal relationship”
    4. Diversion
  2. Assertive Strategy
    1. Confronting
    2. Forcing
    3. Standing Frim
  3. Facilitative Strategy
    1. Problem-solving
    2. Negotiating
    3. Confluence



*Theories used were removed.


GMA Network. 14 September 2011. Citing websites. DepEd draws up tougher policies vs. bullying , violence in schools. Retrieved 20 September 2012, from

Ghaffar, Abdul. 02 March, 2005. Citing websites. Conflict in schools: Its Causes and Management Strategies. Retrieved 21 September 2012, from

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1991). Task knowledge structures: Psychological basis and integration into system design. Acta Pyschologica.

Keys, Susan et al. (2000). Violence and  aggressive youth: intervention and prevention  strategies for changing times. California, USA. Corwin, Inc.

Lee, James et al. (1998). Restoring Harmony: A Guide for Managing Conflicts in School. New Jersey, USA. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Webber, Julia. (1972). Failure to hold: the politics of school violence. United States of America. Rowan and Littlefield.

4 Responses to “Review of Related Literature – School and Campus Bullying”
  1. This one really helps a lot.

    • PJ Rock A. Palma says:

      Thank you! You know, this article was made during when the Philippines has no law for Bullying. Now, the country has!

  2. Taufiq says:

    Thank you for the article. My son has a short story about bullying at school in Thank you.

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